2019 was extremely dry and extremely hot.
The lowest rainfall in 119 years was recorded. Average rainfall was 229 mm: below average for a second year, 29% less than the previous year, and 40% below the 2000–2018 average.
Rainfall was extremely low in northeast NSW and southeast Queensland and in most of the arid inland, further deepening drought conditions. Above-average rainfall occurred in parts of northern Queensland and western Tasmania.
It was also the hottest year on record: 0.85°C above the 2000–2018 average and 1.52°C above the 1961-1990 average.
Maximum temperatures were very high: the average maximum temperature was 43.6 °C or 1.83 °C above the 2000–2018 average.
Many monthly heat records were broken. March and December were especially hot, but unseasonably warm conditions occurred throughout the year, contributing to extended fire seasons.
The number of days exceeding 35°C was the highest on record. Nationally there were an average 106 hot days: 36% or 28 days more than the 2000–2018 average.
Nights were cooler than the previous year because of dry soils and clear skies. However, national average minimum temperature was still 2.24°C above the 2000–2018 average.
Some inland regions had unusually frosty nights, including northern Queensland and the SA-Victoria border region.
Snow cover was below average, but 19% more than the previous year. Unseasonal snow occurred in November in Tasmania.
Dust and smoke caused major air quality problems, especially in NSW and the ACT in December. Air pollution reached unhealthy levels for 14-32 days along the NSW coast, the worst conditions since at least 2000.
source: Australia’s Environment in 2019 Summary Report (link)